## 1- General Physics ### Main Points (EXTENDED)

Measurements • Use and describe the use of rules and measuring cylinders to calculate a length or a volume
• Use and describe the use of a mechanical method for the measurement of a small distance (including use of a micrometer screw gauge)
• Use and describe the use of clocks and devices for measuring an interval of time.
• Measure and describe how to measure a short interval of time (including the period of a pendulum)
• Show familiarity with the idea of the mass of a body
• State that weight is a force
• Demonstrate understanding that weights (and hence masses) may be compared using a balance
• Describe an experiment to determine the density of a liquid and of a regularly shaped solid and make the necessary calculation
• Describe the determination of the density of an irregularly shaped solid by the method of displacement, and make the necessary calculation

(Cambridge IGCSE Physics ….Syllabus 2014)

Motion

• Define speed and calculate speed from total distance/total time
• Plot and interpret a speed/time graph or a distance/time graph
• Recognise from the shape of a speed/time graph when a body is
• at rest
• moving with constant speed
• moving with changing speed
• Calculate the area under a speed/time graph to work out the distance travelled for motion with constant acceleration
• Demonstrate some understanding that acceleration is related to changing speed.
• State that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the Earth is constant
• Describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body
• Find the resultant of two or more forces acting along the same line
• Understanding the weight of the body as a force and its relation to the force
• Distinguish between speed and velocity
• Recognize linear motion for which the acceleration is constant and calculate the acceleration
• Recognize motion for which the acceleration is not constant
• Describe qualitatively the motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field with and without air resistance (including reference to terminal velocity)
• Demonstrate an understanding that mass is a property that ‘resists’ change in motion
• Describe, and use the concept of, weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass
• Recall and use the relation between force, mass and acceleration (including the direction)
• Describe qualitatively motion in a curved path due to a perpendicular force (F = mv2/r is not required)
• Demonstrate an understanding of the difference between scalars and vectors and give common examples
• Add vectors by graphical representation to determine a resultant
• Determine graphically the resultant of two vectors

(Cambridge IGCSE Physics ….Syllabus 2014)

Turning effect

• Describe the moment of a force as a measure of its turning effect and give everyday examples
• Describe qualitatively the balancing of a beam about a pivot
• State that, when there is no resultant force and no resultant turning effect, a system is in equilibrium. “Conditions for equilibrium”
• Perform and describe an experiment (involving vertical forces) to show that there is no net moment on a body in equilibrium
• Apply the idea of opposing moments to simple systems in equilibrium

Centre of mass

• Perform and describe an experiment to determine the position of the centre of mass of a plane lamina.
• Describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of mass on the stability of simple objects.

Effects of forces

• State that a force may produce a change in size and shape of a body
• Plot extension/load graphs and describe the associated experimental procedure
• State Hooke’s Law and recall and use the expression F = k x
• Recognise the significance of the term ‘limit of proportionality’ for an extension/load graph

Pressure

• Relate pressure to force and area, using appropriate examples.
• Relate the pressure beneath a liquid surface to depth and to density, using appropriate examples.
• Recall and use the equation p = F/A
• Recall and use the equation p = hρg
• Describe the simple mercury barometer and its use in measuring atmospheric pressure.
• Use and describe the use of a manometer.

(Cambridge IGCSE Physics ….Syllabus 2014)

Energy

• Demonstrate an understanding that an object may have energy due to its motion or its position, and that energy may be transferred and stored
• Give examples of energy in different forms, including kinetic, gravitational, chemical, strain, nuclear, internal, electrical, light and sound
• Give examples of the conversion of energy from one form to another, and of its transfer from one place to another
• Apply the principle of energy conservation to simple examples
• Show an understanding that energy is released by nuclear fusion in the Sun
• Recall and use the expressions k.e. = ½ mv2 and p.e. = mgh

Work

• Relate work done to the magnitude of a force and the distance moved
• Describe energy changes in terms of work done
• Recall and use ΔW = Fd = ΔE

Power

• Relate power to work done and time taken, using appropriate examples
• Show a qualitative understanding of efficiency.
• Recall and use the equation of efficiency
• Recall and use the equation P = E/t in simple systems

Energy resources

• Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy
• Describe how electricity or other useful forms of energy may be obtained from:
• Chemical energy stored in fuel
• Water, including the energy stored in waves, in tides, and in water behind hydroelectric dams
• Geothermal resources
• Nuclear fission
• Heat and light from the Sun (solar cells and panels)
• Give advantages and disadvantages of each method in terms of cost, reliability, scale and environmental impact

(Cambridge IGCSE Physics ….Syllabus 2014)