## 1- General Physics

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**Main Points (EXTENDED)**

**Measurem****e****nts**

- Use and describe the use of rules and measuring cylinders to calculate a length or a volume
- Use and describe the use of a mechanical method for the measurement of a small distance (including use of a micrometer screw gauge)
- Use and describe the use of clocks and devices for measuring an interval of time.
- Measure and describe how to measure a short interval of time (including the period of a pendulum)
- Show familiarity with the idea of the mass of a body
- State that weight is a force
- Demonstrate understanding that weights (and hence masses) may be compared using a balance
- Describe an experiment to determine the density of a liquid and of a regularly shaped solid and make the necessary calculation
- Describe the determination of the density of an irregularly shaped solid by the method of displacement, and make the necessary calculation

*(**Cambridge IGCSE Physics ….Syllabus 2014)*

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**Motion**

- Define speed and calculate speed from total distance/total time
- Plot and interpret a speed/time graph or a distance/time graph
- Recognise from the shape of a speed/time graph when a body is
- at rest
- moving with constant speed
- moving with changing speed

- Calculate the area under a speed/time graph to work out the distance travelled for motion with constant acceleration
- Demonstrate some understanding that acceleration is related to changing speed.
- State that the acceleration of free fall for a body near to the Earth is constant
- Describe the ways in which a force may change the motion of a body
- Find the resultant of two or more forces acting along the same line
- Understanding the weight of the body as a force and its relation to the force
- Distinguish between speed and velocity
- Recognize linear motion for which the acceleration is constant and calculate the acceleration
- Recognize motion for which the acceleration is not constant
- Describe qualitatively the motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field with and without air resistance (including reference to terminal velocity)
- Demonstrate an understanding that mass is a property that ‘resists’ change in motion
- Describe, and use the concept of, weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass
- Recall and use the relation between force, mass and acceleration (including the direction)
- Describe qualitatively motion in a curved path due to a perpendicular force (F = mv
^{2}/r is not required) - Demonstrate an understanding of the difference between scalars and vectors and give common examples
- Add vectors by graphical representation to determine a resultant
- Determine graphically the resultant of two vectors

*(**Cambridge IGCSE Physics ….Syllabus 2014)*

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**Turning effect**

- Describe the moment of a force as a measure of its turning effect and give everyday examples
- Describe qualitatively the balancing of a beam about a pivot
- State that, when there is no resultant force and no resultant turning effect, a system is in equilibrium. “Conditions for equilibrium”
- Perform and describe an experiment (involving vertical forces) to show that there is no net moment on a body in equilibrium
- Apply the idea of opposing moments to simple systems in equilibrium

**Centre of mass**

- Perform and describe an experiment to determine the position of the centre of mass of a plane lamina.
- Describe qualitatively the effect of the position of the centre of mass on the stability of simple objects.

**Effects of forces**

- State that a force may produce a change in size and shape of a body
- Plot extension/load graphs and describe the associated experimental procedure
- Interpret extension/load graphs
- State Hooke’s Law and recall and use the expression F = k x
- Recognise the significance of the term ‘limit of proportionality’ for an extension/load graph

**Pressure**

- Relate pressure to force and area, using appropriate examples.
- Relate the pressure beneath a liquid surface to depth and to density, using appropriate examples.
- Recall and use the equation p = F/A
- Recall and use the equation p = hρg
- Describe the simple mercury barometer and its use in measuring atmospheric pressure.
- Use and describe the use of a manometer.

*(**Cambridge IGCSE Physics ….Syllabus 2014)*

**Energy**

- Demonstrate an understanding that an object may have energy due to its motion or its position, and that energy may be transferred and stored
- Give examples of energy in different forms, including kinetic, gravitational, chemical, strain, nuclear, internal, electrical, light and sound
- Give examples of the conversion of energy from one form to another, and of its transfer from one place to another
- Apply the principle of energy conservation to simple examples
- Show an understanding that energy is released by nuclear fusion in the Sun
- Recall and use the expressions k.e. = ½ mv
^{2}and p.e. = mgh

**Work**

- Relate work done to the magnitude of a force and the distance moved
- Describe energy changes in terms of work done
- Recall and use ΔW = Fd = ΔE

**Power**

- Relate power to work done and time taken, using appropriate examples
- Show a qualitative understanding of efficiency.
- Recall and use the equation of efficiency
- Recall and use the equation
*P*=*E/t*in simple systems

**Energy resources**

- Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy
- Describe how electricity or other useful forms of energy may be obtained from:
- Chemical energy stored in fuel
- Water, including the energy stored in waves, in tides, and in water behind hydroelectric dams
- Geothermal resources
- Nuclear fission
- Heat and light from the Sun (solar cells and panels)
- Give advantages and disadvantages of each method in terms of cost, reliability, scale and environmental impact

* (**Cambridge IGCSE Physics ….Syllabus 2014)*